Information and Meta-information


In Logic (Theory)



Def. 1: X is a situation iff P such that represent(P, X) – cf. mental situation
Def. 2: P is an information on X iff X,Y represent(P, X) not-represent(P, Y)
Def. 3: P is an absurd information iff P not-represent(P, X)

Def. 4: P is a trivial information iff P represent(P, X)
Def. 5: Π is a meta-information iff P is an information on X and Π is an information on P.

Greniewski Henryk (1968) "Język nauki" (The Language of Science), Zagadnienia Naukoznawstwa (Problems of Epistemology), quarterly, vol. IV, tome 1(13), Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw (in Polish).


Demolombe, R. & Jones, A.J.I. (1995) "A common logical framework to retrieve information and meta information", Proc. Workshop on Information Gathering from heterogeneous, Distributed Environments, American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Symposium. Stanford, 1995.

Demolombe, R. & Jones,
A.J.I. (1995) , "Reasoning about topics: towards a formal theory", Proc. Workshop on Formalizing Contexts, American Association for Artificial Intelligence Fall Symposium. Boston, 1995.


In Linguistics (Theory)

Meta-information is information about another information.
In utterance analysis, meta-information concerns attention (selecting) and predication (collecting).
Every information about another information is also information, however this information is of another sort than the information in question. In linguistics, the meta-informative status (of uttered chunks of information) is an utterance-specific feature of that information which is being predicated upon in speech acts. Introducing the distinction information vs. meta-information makes it is easy to define such famous concepts as Subject, Object and Predicate, on the one hand, and Topic, Focus, Comment and Background, on the other hand.
Thus, truth-conditional values (True/False) are proposition-specific while meta-informative status values (New/Old) are utterance-specific.
The MIC Book (2013), Benjamin's Publishing Co.


In Computer Science (Practice)

"Metainformation is information about information. For example, if a document is considered to be information, its title, location, and subject are examples of metainformation. This term is sometimes used interchangably with the term metadata. The new field of knowledge management (KM) was developed to create systematic and reliable ways to manage data, information, and knowledge..."
(quoted from
SearchOracle.com)

Meta-Information in Approximate Reasoning for Decision-Making
"Meta-information is characteristics or qualifiers of information, affecting a human’s (or behavior model’s) information processing, situation awareness, and decision-making..."

Guarino S, Pfautz J, Cox Z & Roth E (2009) "Modeling Human Reasoning about Meta-Information", International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, Volume 50, Issue 3  (March 2009), 437-449 (the published version of this paper is now available at Google: click here or here)


Meta-Information Management

S. Crawley, S. Davis, J. Indulska, S. McBride, K. Raymond (1997) "Meta Information Management", Proceedings 2nd IFIP International Conference on Formal Methods for Open Object-based Distributed Systems (FMOODS’97), Canterbury, Kent, UK, Chapman & Hall, July 1997, pp. 193-202.

Crawley S, Davis S., Indulska J, McBride S., Raymond K. (1997) “Meta-meta is better-better!”, IFIP Workshop on Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems (DAIS), Cottbus, Germany.